Irene Scruggs

Irene Scruggs

From Wikipedia
Irene Scruggs
Also known as Chocolate Brown
Dixie Nolan
Born December 7, 1901
MississippiUnited States
Died Probably July 20, 1981
Genres Piedmont bluescountry blues
Occupations Singersongwriter
Instruments Vocals
Years active 1920s–1950s

Irene Scruggs (December 7, 1901 – probably July 20, 1981) was an American Piedmont blues and country blues singer, who was also billed as Chocolate Brown and Dixie Nolan. She recorded songs such as “My Back to the Wall” and “Good Grindin”, and variously worked alongside Clarence WilliamsJoe “King” OliverLonnie JohnsonLittle Brother MontgomeryAlbert Nicholas, and Kid Ory.  Scruggs achieved some success but today remains largely forgotten.


Scruggs originated in rural Mississippi, but it is believed that she was raised in St. Louis, MissouriMary Lou Williams recalled Scruggs being a singer of some standing when Williams travelled to St. Louis in vaudeville. Scruggs was hired by the revue company, and her career there sometimes outshone her work as a recording artist and nightclub singer. Nevertheless, Scruggs got to sing with a number of Joe “King” Oliver‘s bands that played in St. Louis in the mid-1920s. Scruggs was later accompanied by Blind Blake.  In her live shows her song, “Itching Heel”, provided the platform for interplay between the Scruggs’ singing and Blake’s guitar work. “He don’t do nothing but play on his old guitar,” Scruggs sangs, “While I’m busting suds out in the white folks’ yard.”

She first recorded in 1924, utilising Clarence Williams as her pianist on Okeh Records. In 1926 she reignited her working association with Oliver.  Two of the songs that Scruggs wrote, “Home Town Blues” and “Sorrow Valley Blues”, were both recorded by Oliver.  She recorded again for Okeh in 1927, this time with Lonnie Johnson. Scruggs formed her own band in the late 1920s, and appeared regularly performing around the St. Louis area.

Using the pseudonym, Chocolate Brown, she recorded further tracks with Blind Blake, and to avoid contractual problems also appeared billed as Dixie Nolan. By the early 1930s, Little Brother Montgomery took over as her accompanist on both recordings and touring work.

Scruggs also sang and recorded more sexually explicit material. “Good Grindin'” and “Must Get Mine in Front” (1930) were the better known examples of her dirty blues, and some of her work appeared in The Nasty Blues, published by the Hal Leonard Corporation. Scruggs only recorded a small batch of songs, and her recording career finished around 1935. In the 1940s, Scruggs left the United States for Europe, first settling in Paris, and later relocating to Germany. In the 1950s, Scruggs undertook a number of BBC Radio broadcasts.

It is thought that she died in Germany, although no definitive information has been unearthed.


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