Buddy Bolden


Buddy Bolden

From Wikipedia
Buddy Bolden
Birth name Charles Joseph Bolden
Also known as King Bolden
Born September 6, 1877
Origin New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
Died November 4, 1931 (aged 54)
Genres Rag-time
Traditional Jazz
Jazz
Blues
Instruments cornet

Charles Joseph “Buddy” Bolden (September 6, 1877 – November 4, 1931) was an African-American cornetist and is regarded by contemporaries as a key figure in the development of a New Orleans style of rag-time music, which later came to be known as jazz.

Life

He was known as King Bolden (see Jazz royalty), and his band was a top draw in New Orleans (the city of his birth) from about 1900 until 1907, when he was incapacitated by schizophrenia (then called dementia praecox). He left no known surviving recordings, but he was known for his very loud sound and constant improvisation.

While there is substantial first-hand oral history about Buddy Bolden, facts about his life continue to be lost amidst colorful myth. Stories about his being a barber by trade or that he published a scandal sheet called The Cricket have been repeated in print despite being debunked decades earlier. Reputedly, his father was a teamster.

Bolden suffered an episode of acute alcoholic psychosis in 1907 at the age of 30. With the full diagnosis of dementia praecox, he was admitted to the Louisiana State Insane Asylum at Jackson, a mental institution, where he spent the rest of his life.

Bolden was buried in an unmarked grave in Holt Cemetery, a pauper‘s graveyard in New Orleans. In 1998 a monument to Bolden was erected in Holt Cemetery, but his exactgravesite remains unknown.

Music

The Bolden Band around 1905.

The Bolden Band around 1905. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Bolden Band around 1905.

Many early jazz musicians credited Bolden and the members of his band with being the originators of what came to be known as “jazz”, though the term was not in common musical use until after the era of Bolden’s prominence. At least one writer has labeled him the father of jazz.  He is credited with creating a looser, more improvised version of ragtime and adding blues to it; Bolden’s band was said to be the first to have brass instruments play the blues. He was also said to have taken ideas from gospel music heard in uptown African-American Baptist churches.

Instead of imitating other cornetists, Bolden played music he heard “by ear” and adapted it to his horn. In doing so, he created an exciting and novel fusion of ragtime, black sacred music, marching-band music, and rural blues. He rearranged the typical New Orleans dance band of the time to better accommodate the blues; string instruments became the rhythm section, and the front-line instruments were clarinets, trombones, and Bolden’s cornet. Bolden was known for his powerful, loud, “wide open” playing style.  Joe “King” OliverFreddie KeppardBunk Johnson, and other early New Orleans jazz musicians were directly inspired by his playing.

No known recordings of Bolden have survived. His trombonist Willy Cornish asserted that Bolden’s band had made at least one phonograph cylinder in the late 1890s. Three other old-time New Orleans musicians, George BaquetAlphonse Picouand Bob Lyons also remembered a recording session (“Turkey in the Straw”, according to Baquet) in the early 1900s. The researcher Tim Brooks believes that these cylinders, if they existed, may have been privately recorded for local music dealers and were never distributed in bulk.

Some of the songs first associated with his band, such as the traditional song “Careless Love” and “My Bucket’s Got a Hole in It”, are still standards. Bolden often closed his shows with the original number “Get Out of Here and Go Home”, although for more “polite” gigs, the last number would be “Home! Sweet Home!“.

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